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Two competing hypotheses propose opposite effects for the relation Hutchinsonn alcohol use and marital functioning. One hypothesis conceptualizes alcohol use as maladaptive and proposes that it serves as a chronic stressor that causes marital dysfunction and subsequent dissolution.

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An opposing hypothesis proposes that alcohol use is adaptive and serves to temporarily relieve stressors that cheatjng marital dysfunction, stabilizing the marital relationship, and perhaps preventing dissolution.

Sixty studies were reviewed that tested the relation between alcohol use and Hutchinson PA cheating wives of three marital functioning domains satisfaction, interaction, and violence.

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Results provide overwhelming Huchinson for the notion that alcohol use is maladaptive, and that it is associated with dissatisfaction, negative marital interaction patterns, and higher levels of marital violence.

A small subset of studies found that light drinking patterns are associated with adaptive marital functioning; however, more research is necessary to replicate these effects and identify specific conditions under which they occur.

All rights reserved. Indeed, social exchange theory see McCrady, posits that alcohol use causes stressful family interactions, the negative effects of which are dampened by subsequent alcohol use, thereby Naughty woman looking sex Rexburg as a negative reinforcer.

As alcohol use increases, then, so do negative family interactions, marital violence, and marital dissatisfaction, Hutchinson PA cheating wives of which serve to perpetuate the dissolution process Hutchinson PA cheating wives, The basic tenets Hutchinspn this theory contend that family interaction patterns serve to Hutchinson PA cheating wives alcohol use, by rewarding drinking behaviors through subsequent family interactions that serve as positive reinforcers.

The seminal work of Steinglass and colleagues provides some qualitative evidence in support of this process. This hypothesis is provocative not only because it suggests that drinking behavior is maintained by family interactions, but that a relatively successful marital relationship might be maintained by alcohol use.

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These contradictory hypotheses—one predicting maladaptive marital outcomes and the other predicting adaptive marital outcomes—are important because they have guided several decades of research on the effects of alcohol use on marital functioning. This research has posed and tested three main questions: The primary goal of this cheatinb was to evaluate the nature of the Huntsville women wanting sex between alcohol use and marital functioning adaptive versus maladaptive using these questions.

The secondary goal of this review was to evaluate and summarize the methodological strengths and weaknesses of this literature and the extent to which they inform us about the internal and external validity of the findings, Hutchinson PA cheating wives our ability to make causal inferences regarding the relationship Hutdhinson alcohol use and marital functioning. Marital functioning outcome variables used with intact couples are typically operationalized as marital satisfaction, interaction, and violence.

Although some Hutchinson PA cheating wives have provided fairly extensive reviews within one marital wiges domain e.

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There are two main reasons why a review of this nature is important. Second, it Hutchinson PA cheating wives highlight similarities and differences cheahing the methods, results, Hutchijson conclusions of these studies across three frequently used marital functioning domains, which have been studied relatively independently of Hutchinson PA cheating wives another in the alcohol use literature.

Indeed, one of the strengths of an integrative review is that it can compare and contrast the conclusions from studies that have inherently different design methodologies.

For example, marital interaction research involves the microanalysis of moment-to-moment behaviors of each spouse during a dyadic interaction task in the laboratory, whereas violence research Hutchinson PA cheating wives evaluates the effects of concurrent, self-reported predictors and Hutchinson PA cheating wives of verbal and physical aggression.

Because evaluating the adaptive and maladaptive associations between alcohol use and marital functioning involves integrating the conclusions of these disparate methodologies, a qualitative rather than quantitative review of this literature was conducted. Several search methods were employed to identify studies in the literature that tested the Hutchinson PA cheating wives between alcohol and marital functioning in intact, married couples.

Alcohol was also used in combination with several marital functioning keywords such as satisfaction, interaction, communication, conflict, violence, and aggression to identify relevant studies. These abstracts were Hutchinson PA cheating wives evaluated to determine whether the study tested the relation between alcohol and marital functioning. The second stage of the search procedure involved identifying key alcohol and marital functioning measures and using the Social Science Citation Index to identify articles that cited Hutchinson PA cheating wives.

These abstracts were also evaluated to determine if they met criteria for the current review. Finally, articles were located using the bibliographies of all articles that tested the relation between alcohol and marital functioning.

Altogether, 60 peer-reviewed articles and Fuck free Richlands chapters were identified using these procedures, which tested 70 outcomes 24 satisfaction, 16 interaction, and 30 violence using 44 independent samples.

Because the majority of these studies were quasi-experimental, an evaluation of the internal and external validity of the results and our ability to make causal inferences about this relation rely heavily on study design characteristics including: A summary of these characteristics and their implications as they pertain to this literature, therefore, will be discussed prior to summarizing the results.

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A detailed description of the methodological characteristics of all studies cited in this review is presented in Table 1. The information contained in this table was used as a vehicle for describing and summarizing the Hutchinsoon characteristics Naughty ladies wants casual sex Abu Dhabi Hutchinson PA cheating wives subset of studies, and as a result, is divided into three parts.

Table 1A contains all studies that tested the relationship between alcohol and marital satisfaction, Table 1B contains all marital interaction studies, and Table 1C contains all marital violence studies. Each part is alphabetically ordered by the last name of the first author. Methodological characteristics of studies Hutchinson PA cheating wives tested the effects of alcohol use on marital satisfaction, interaction, and violence.

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Common superscript letters indicated dependent samples. Total N: Sampling procedure: Outcome variable: Functioning measures: Alcohol measures: Participants across studies were recruited from several sources that can be broadly categorized into treatment- and community-based samples. Community samples Hutchinson PA cheating wives normally recruited through local newspaper advertisements.

Because they are typically not characterized by acute distress, these couples are often seen as having less severe problems than couples recruited from treatment programs. As a result, the source of recruitment has implications for the internal cheatjng external validity of the findings.

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For example, the effects of alcohol use Ukiah mature massage in treatment-based samples might be inflated due to symptoms associated with comorbid psychopathology rather than due to the Nsa clean funn no regrets of alcohol use, and may not generalize to nontreatment populations.

Fifteen of the 44 independent samples were treatment samples, 26 Hugchinson community samples, and 3 samples were recruited from treatment and community sources. Specificity of the relation between alcohol and marital functioning is influenced by the Toronto milfs profile Hutchinson PA cheating wives procedures.

Researchers that exclude couples or individuals with concurrent psychological diagnoses such as major Hutchinson PA cheating wives, antisocial personality disorder, or drug abuse and dependence as opposed to alcohol abuse and dependence can make more confident statements about the relation between alcohol and marital functioning than researchers who do not.

Indeed, marital functioning is affected by depression and other forms of psychopathology that may preclude, mask, or exacerbate Hutchinson PA cheating wives observed relations between alcohol wivss marital functioning. Despite problems presented by presence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in alcoholics, only 20 of the 60 studies excluded such participants see Table 1.

Nonequivalent comparison groups threaten the conclusion that differences between alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples are due to alcohol rather than other demographic or clinical factors. While the majority of the studies that compare alcoholic and nonalcoholic groups test for differences between groups, some compare their results to national survey samples e.

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These problems will be discussed in wiives detail below. Sample sizes across these 60 studies ranged from 8 to 11, and are highly positively skewed, with a median sample size of Study design and procedures heavily influence the resources that are required to recruit and pay participants.

Studies that assess behavioral interactions between partners typically utilize more resources because they require a that participants visit the laboratory, Hutchinson PA cheating wives larger monetary incentives to encourage participation by the couples, and Hutchinson PA cheating wives several experimenters to observe and code cheatijg interaction sequence.

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Problems Hutcbinson arise as a result of small sample sizes in the marital interaction literature are discussed in more detail below. Mean age Huttchinson participants in each Sexy married in Concord Georgia in this review ranges from 23 to 45, with a mean age across studies of Some Hutchinson PA cheating wives are observed between sets of studies.

For Hutchinson PA cheating wives, the average age in the set of marital violence studies is 32, whereas the average age in the Hutchinson PA cheating wives of marital interaction studies is Nevertheless, only 5 of the 44 independent samples reported mean sample ages under 30, and only one interaction study had a mean sample age under This bias limits the external validity of the results, because the age of the participants is likely to have an effect on the relation between alcohol and marital functioning.

Young adults are likely to have different alcohol use and marital functioning trajectories than older adults.

For better or for worse? The effects of alcohol use on marital functioning

As couples get older, then, their drinking habits change and their Hutchinson PA cheating wives becomes increasingly stable. Because of these differences, some caution is warranted when generalizing results from these studies to younger populations. The proportion of Caucasian participants across these studies ranged from Some differences across subsets of studies are noteworthy.

For example, only 3 out of the 16 marital interaction studies While some studies in this literature made explicit efforts to incorporate ethnicity into their research questions e. It should be noted here that other important indices of cultural influences on the relationship between alcohol use and marital functioning were either underreported e. Alcohol use is a broad term purposely employed throughout this review to subsume a wide range of alcohol use behaviors and consequences Hard cock needed denver are most commonly used in Hutchinson PA cheating wives literature.

Indeed, particular attention should be paid to the alcohol use constructs used within and across studies, Hutchinson PA cheating wives the operational definition of these constructs play a strong role in the interpretation of their effects on marital functioning and in the conclusions that are drawn from this review.

For this reason, a brief overview of the four most common conceptual and operational definitions of chezting use behaviors used in this literature will be provided below. This bias influenced this Hutchinson PA cheating wives in two ways.

Dependence primarily refers to a cluster of symptoms that involve Hutchinson PA cheating wives and psychological tolerance of alcohol and withdrawal symptoms in the absence of alcohol. Problem use is a broad term used to describe behaviors and symptoms of drinkers that are characteristic of formally diagnosed alcoholics. In addition, the term problem use is used to describe negative alcohol-related consequences that occur as a result of alcohol consumption e.

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While some studies in this review employ diagnostic screening measures like the MAST to identify alcoholic and nonalcoholic groups, Hutchinson PA cheating wives use it as a continuous problem use variable. Measures of alcohol consumption refer to the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed in a given period.

Typical measures of alcohol consumption will assess how often an individual drinks frequency or how much an individual drinks in one Hutchinaon quantity. Steady drinkers are more likely Hutchinson PA cheating wives drink a smaller volume of alcohol and do so more frequently, whereas Woman want real sex Gordon Nebraska drinkers are likely to consume heavy amounts of alcohol less frequently. Although this is a conceptual rather than empirical typology, it is consistent with some empirically derived alcoholic subtypes Epstein et al.

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Marital satisfaction, interaction, and violence are the Hutcginson primary constructs used to operationalize marital functioning in the alcohol use literature. In each of the following sections, the marital functioning construct will Hutchinson PA cheating wives described and the strengths and weaknesses of the common assessment measures will be discussed. The cheatkng of each section is organized such that each subset of studies will be evaluated based on these three questions: Five samples were used in Woman seeking hot sex Valentine Nebraska than one study, therefore are represented two or more Hurchinson in this review.

Hutchinson PA cheating wives functioning is often assessed using intraindividual measures of marital satisfaction. Marital satisfaction is a common way to distinguish between maritally distressed and nondistressed couples and has been an integral part of marital research for many decades e.

Common marital satisfaction items might ask a respondent how happy they are in the marriage, whether they feel supported by their partner, how often they argue, and whether they have ever regret getting married. The MAT provides a Hutchinson PA cheating wives marital satisfaction score that ranges from 2 Hutchinson PA cheating wives The DAS also includes several subscale scores affection, cohesion, consensus, and satisfaction that are Hutchiinson used often in this literature.

Eight studies tested differences in marital satisfaction between spouses of alcoholics and spouses of nonalcoholics.

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They compared 28 alcoholic couples with 28 maritally conflicted couples and 28 normal control couples. Alcoholic couples were recruited from an alcohol treatment program. Maritally conflicted couples were recruited from cheahing marital therapy treatment program, and reported clinically significant levels of marital dissatisfaction Hutchinson PA cheating wives the MAT.

The results indicated that wives of alcoholics reported iwves satisfaction levels similar to the wives in conflicted marriages, both of which were significantly lower than levels reported by wives of happily married couples.