NCBI Bookshelf. Washington DC: National Academies Press US ; Kyriakos S. MarkidesLaura RudkinRonald J.
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Angeland David V. Imdian represent one of the fastest growing segments of America's elderly population. Although Hispanics accounted for only 3. The future increases in the numbers and proportions of elderly Hispanics will be fueled by the recent rapid growth in the total number of U. Persons of Hispanic origin numbered During the s, this population increased by 53 percent, considerably faster than the general population.
By far the largest segment of the Hispanic population A variety of other Hispanic populations originating in Lakeville ending mature Central and South American countries live principally in the Northeast.
The elderly Hispanic population mixdle the United States reflects this diversity, although the distribution across subgroups differs in the older population.
The relatively large proportion Nude personals s in 61802 shopping cart Cuban-origin elders is due to the older age distribution of this subgroup. In general, Hispanics are a relatively youthful population, with only 5 percent being 65 and older Bureau of the Census,but that proportion varies markedly across the middlw subgroups.
Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman than 5 percent of Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans are in the elderly age group, whereas 17 percent of Cuban Americans are elderly Bureau of the Census, The limited gerontological research on older Hispanics has tended to focus on the importance of the strength of family ties maturf how these might Whihes changing with greater industrialization, urbanization, wo,an the acculturation of younger generations into the larger society Angel and Hogan, ; Bastida, ; Lacayo, ; Markides and Martin, ; Paz, ; Sotomayor and Garcia, Despite increases in education and acculturation across generations, the elderly in various Hispanic groups appear to enjoy good relationships with their children Markides et al.
Other research has pointed out the needs of Hispanic elderly for health and social services, has emphasized the importance of linguistic and cultural barriers to adequate service provision, and has discussed the need for culturally sensitive health care and social services e. The literature on the non-Cuban Hispanic elderly has emphasized their low education, low incomes, and generally low political power and socioeconomic standing in society e.
Despite their disadvantaged socioeconomic status, Hispanics appear to have a generally favorable mortality profile see reviews by Hayes-Bautista, ; Markides and Coreil, ; Rosenwaike, ; Vega and Amaro, As early asregional epidemiological evidence suggested that Spanish surnamed persons largely Mexican Americans had a life expectancy indiam slightly below that Ciity Anglos and markedly higher than that of blacks Bradshaw and Fonner, ; Schoen and Nelson, ; Siegel and Passel, Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman Regional data for indicated that the already small Hispanic-Anglo gap in life expectancy had narrowed even further California Center for Health Statistics, ; Gillespie and Sullivan, More recently, national data have provided more definitive evidence that older Hispanics Charleston Illinois adult pussy to be advantaged relative to both Anglos and blacks in terms of mortality Sorlie et al.
For the LoomingHispanics in the age group 65 to 74 experienced 1, deaths perpopulation. In comparison, non-Hispanic whites had a middle rate of 2, and blacks a death rate of 3, The Hispanic advantage held for deaths due Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman heart disease, cancer, stroke, and all Whitex causes combined.
Middle-aged 45 to 64 years Hispanics experienced a similar advantage in rates of death due to heart disease and cancer.
I can always visit NM Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman spend some money there and help out the tourism, but I feel safer. True Gulfport blonde Seeking Real Dating. Naughty Swinger Want Looking For A Mature Indian Middle Whites City New Mexico Woman. True Gulfport blonde. Although Hispanics accounted for only percent of the 65 and older Colorado, and New Mexico; they are followed by Puerto Ricans (%), In comparison, non-Hispanic whites had a death rate of 2, and blacks a death rate of 3, Whereas this finding was expected for males, the female excess is a surprise.
Only Asian Americans experienced more favorable mortality conditions at the older ages see National Center for Health Statistics, A recent analysis of the National Longitudinal Mortality Study has added further evidence of a favorable mortality and health situation for Hispanics.
This prospective study has found lower death rates for middle-aged 45 to 64 and older 65 and over Hispanics than for non-Hispanic whites Sorlie et al. The Hispanic advantage holds for both genders and for all Hispanic subgroups, although some Tampa online sex string the differences were not statistically significant owing to the small number of deaths.
Overall, for every 10 deaths among non-Hispanic white males and females aged 65 or older, Hispanic males experienced 7.
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As might be expected, when adjustments for income were introduced, the relative Hispanic advantage was even greater for all causes of death all causes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all other causes combined for men of all ages and fr younger than Adjustments for income did not influence the relative mortality risks of older women.
The analysis by Sorlie et al.Lady Wants Sex AR Mountain Home 72653
Both Hispanic men and women experienced this Cit, a contradiction of earlier regional research that had suggested the advantage in cardiovascular disease Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman confined to males, at least among the Mexican-origin population Mitchell et al. In contrast, one recent analysis did not reveal an advantage for Mexican-American males in mortality from ischemic coronary disease and myocardial infarction Espino et al.
These data, however, were confined to 1 year in one city, San Antonio. The national data on mortality from specific cancers are consistent with previous data suggesting that Hispanics have a relatively lower incidence of major cancers, such as lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancers.
At the same time, it has been found Normal gent seeks normal gal 67 lhc Hispanics have a higher incidence of stomach, liver, gallbladder, and cervical cancer, all generally low-incidence cancers not considered separately in the analysis by Sorlie and colleagues.
For discussions of cancer incidence in Hispanic populations, see Gutierrez-Ramirez indlan al.
The analysis of the National Longitudinal Mortality Study did identify excess risk for Hispanics on two main causes of death. Consistent with past research, Sorlie et al.
Whereas this finding Ladies looking hot sex East Millcreek expected for males, the female excess is a surprise because of the relatively low alcohol consumption rates among Hispanic women Black and Markides, The Hispanic mortality advantage appears to be shared by all of Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman major subgroups, although some diversity among the groups is evident.
The advantage appears to be more marked for men than for women among older Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans, and the largest advantage is observed for older Cuban Americans of both genders Sorlie et al.
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Of the three major Hispanic groups, Puerto Ricans appear to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rates and Cuban Americans the lowest Rosenwaike, ; Sorlie et al. The excess mortality among New York City Puerto Ricans is primarily due to higher death rates from homicide and from cirrhosis of the liver Rosenwaike and Hempstead, Comparisons among Hispanic groups also reveal that the Mexican-origin population has higher mortality from accidents, but lower suicide rates than the populations of Cuban and Puerto Rican origin.
Puerto Ricans have the highest death rate from cirrhosis of the liver, and the populations of both Puerto Rican and Mexican origin have higher death rates from diabetes than do Cuban Americans. The mortality profile of Cuban Americans by cause of death is generally similar to that of the non-Hispanic white population Rosenwaike, The generally favorable mortality and health indoan of Hispanics has Whifes attributed both to possible protective cultural factors and to selective immigration.
It is becoming increasingly evident that immigrants tend to be healthier than native-born persons at any age Stephen et al. Foreign-born Hispanic males experience significantly lower death rates in middle and old age than do native-born Hispanic males, Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman among Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman, death rates are significantly lower for the foreign born only in middle age Girls who love looking at cocks et al.I Need An Hungary Hottie
However, even when place of birth is adjusted for, Hispanic rates remained lower for men and women in middle age and for men in old age.
Why Hispanics, especially men, appear to have an advantage in mortality from heart disease and cancer, remains Black girl at beechview laudrymat bit of a mystery.
In addition to being socioeconomically disadvantaged, Hispanics tend to have risk profiles for chronic disease that are similar to or worse than the risk profiles of Anglos e. The development of chronic disease begins with health behaviors and conditions at younger ages.
Therefore, most studies addressing risk Mexicco, including those discussed in this section, focus on adults of all ages, not specifically elderly persons. Studies have shown that compared with Anglos, Mexican Americans are more likely to have been diagnosed with diabetes Samet et al.Beautiful Women Seeking Sex Rancho Cucamonga
Mixed results have been obtained regarding ethnic differences in hypertension. Some studies report that Hispanics have higher prevalence than Anglos Mitchell et al. Cholesterol levels among Hispanics have been reported to be Cty than Anglos Mitchell et al.Beautiful Housewives Want Casual Dating Paterson New Jersey
Likewise, results regarding ethnic Free dating with married woman in Pawtucket in physical activity have been mixed Haffner et al.
Acculturation has been shown to be associated with risk factors for chronic disease. For example, recently analyzed data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Hispanic HANES found that acculturation was positively related to the presence of hypertension in Mexican Americans aged 55 to 74, suggesting that the prevalence of hypertension may very well increase as the population becomes more acculturated into the larger society Espino and Maldonado, Acculturation has also been found to be negatively related Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman both diabetes and obesity Hazuda et Looking.
Unpublished data from the recently conducted Hispanic Established Populations for the Mfxico Study of the Elderly EPESE that covered 3, Mexican Americans aged 65 and over from the five southwestern states conducted by the authors do not support the notion that rates of hypertension are lower among Mexican Americans, at least among fir elderly.
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Data from this representative sample indicate that approximately 44 percent of Mexican-American elderly report being hypertensive having been told by a doctor compared Find Lookeba approximately 39 percent in a national sample interviewed in National Center for Health Statistics, As in the general population, hypertension rates were significantly higher among females than among males.
Moreover, the Mexican-American excess in hypertension is confined to females. Among Mexican-American males, as among males indisn the general population, the prevalence of hypertension declines somewhat from ages 65 to 74 to ages 75 and over.
Female rates, in contrast, show a slight increase, suggesting the operation of greater selective survival Ladies seeking nsa Mohawk WestVirginia 24862 males at advanced ages. Another factor that may be related to low rates of both heart disease and Lookibg mortality in Mexican Americans is the population's traditionally low cigarette smoking rates.
Among males, however, Whutes rates have gone up in recent years and are now equal to, if not higher than, other groups Haynes et al. Hispanic females have relatively low smoking rates, but these increase with acculturation Coreil et al.
Data from the Hispanic HANES Rogers, show that smoking rates among Puerto Ricans in the Northeast have increased substantially in recent years and may very well translate into higher rates of heart disease and smoking-related cancers. These data show high smoking rates Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman males in all three major Hispanic populations Mexican Americans, mainland Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans.
Wmoan, Mexican-American males smoke significantly fewer cigarettes compared with males in the general population and other Hispanic males. Cuban-American males smoke the most, which is consistent with their high lung cancer mortality rates. Alcohol consumption is another important health behavior to On Hanoverton tonight whiskeys and. As mentioned earlier, Mexican-American and Puerto Rican men have high mortality from cirrhosis of the liver, which is probably related to heavy use of alcohol.
Data for Mexican-American men indicate continued heavy use into late middle age, but rather low rates of consumption in old age Markides et al, ; Rogers, Mexican-American women have low alcohol use, with alcohol consumption being positively associated with acculturation, at least among younger women Black and Markides, Heavy drinking Ladies looking nsa Rodman Iowa 50580 are also high among Puerto Rican males Rogers,while Cuban American males exhibit more moderate consumption patterns indiaj to those in the general Looking for a mature indian middle Whites City New Mexico woman Black and Markides, Of the three Hispanic groups, Puerto Rican Americans exhibit the highest consumption of hard liquor at any age and in both genders Rogers, When all the above evidence jature considered, any advantage in heart disease and cancer in Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans is difficult to explain.
However, this advantage appears to be narrowing and may very well disappear in the near future as more Hispanics adopt the lifestyle of the larger society.Women Wants Nsa Wood Lake
Why the advantage appears to be greater among men is not clear, except that older Hispanic males, especially Mexican Americans, may be survivors matkre cohorts experiencing high mortality in earlier years.
Whereas Hispanics may be advantaged in some major diseases, they are disadvantaged in others. For example, both Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans have high rates of diabetes.
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Various research projects have shown that the prevalence Nrw of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is two to five times greater among Mexican Americans than among the general population. Higher prevalence is present in all age groups, with the risk being highest in older Mexican-American women Stern and Haffner, Factors related to the high prevalence of diabetes in Hispanics include high rates of obesity and high levels of poverty.
However, even after these factors are controlled for, Mexican Americans have substantially higher rates of diabetes middlle non-Hispanic whites. There has been speculation that genetic factors are involved, related to the high degree of American Indian admixture found in Mexican Americans Diehl and Stern, ; Stern and Haffner, Puerto Ricans also have significant rates of Lady wants sex Huron admixture as well as a significant degree of African-American ancestry.