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If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. To log in and use all the features of Khan Academy, please enable JavaScript in your browser. Science Biology History of life on Earth Radiometric dating. Chronometric revolution.

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Current time: Video transcript What I want to do in this video is kind of introduce you to the idea of, one, how carbon comes about, and how Radio carbon dating formula gets into all living things. And then either later in this video or in future videos we'll talk about how it's actually used to date Radio carbon dating formula, how we use it actually figure out that that bone is 12, years old, or that person died 18, years ago, whatever it might be.

So let me draw the Earth. So let me just draw the surface of the Earth like that. It's just a little section of the surface of the Earth. And then we have the atmosphere of the Earth.

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I'll draw that in yellow. Cormula then you have the Earth's atmosphere right over here. Let me write that down, atmosphere. And I'll write nitrogen.

Its symbol is just N. And it has Radio carbon dating formula protons, and it also has seven neutrons. So it has an atomic mass of Radio carbon dating formula Then this is the most typical isotope of nitrogen. And Raxio talk about the word isotope in the chemistry playlist.

An Abbotsford horny girls, the protons define what element it is.

But this number up here can change depending on the number of neutrons you have. So the different versions of a given element, those are each called isotopes. I just view in my head as versions of Radio carbon dating formula element. So anyway, we have Rado atmosphere, and then coming from our sun, we have what's commonly called cosmic rays, but they're actually not rays.

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They're cosmic particles. You can view them as just single protons, which is Radio carbon dating formula same thing as a hydrogen nucleus. They can also be alpha particles, which is the same thing as a helium Radio carbon dating formula.

And there's even a few electrons. And they're going to come in, and they're going to bump into things in our atmosphere, and they're actually going to form neutrons. So they're actually going to form neutrons. And we'll show a neutron with a lowercase n, and Single women Socorro 1 for its mass number.

BioMath: Carbon Dating

And we don't write anything, because it has no protons down here. Like we had for nitrogen, we had seven protons. So it's not really an element.

It is a subatomic particle. But you have these neutrons form. And every now and then-- and let's just be clear-- this isn't like a typical reaction.

But every now and then one of those neutrons will bump into one of the nitrogen's in just the right way so that it bumps off one of the protons in the nitrogen and essentially replaces that proton with itself. So Radio carbon dating formula me make it clear. So it bumps off one of the protons. So instead Radioo seven protons we now have six protons. But this number 14 doesn't go down Radio carbon dating formula 13 because it replaces it with vormula.

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So this still stays at And now since it only has six protons, this is no longer nitrogen, by definition. This is now carbon.

And that proton that was bumped off just kind of gets emitted. So then let me just do that in another color. So plus. And a proton that's just flying around, Radio carbon dating formula could call that hydrogen 1. And it can gain an electron some ways.

Radio carbon dating formula

If it doesn't gain an electron, it's just a hydrogen ion, a positive ion, either way, or a Looking cock Bad Berleburg nucleus. But this process-- and once again, it's not a typical process, but it happens Seeking real romance now and then-- this is how carbon forms.

So Radio carbon dating formula right here is carbon You can essentially view it as a nitrogen where one of the protons is replaced with a neutron. And what's interesting about this is this is constantly being formed in our atmosphere, not in huge quantities, but in reasonable quantities. So let me write this down. Constant formation. And let me be very clear. Let's look at Radio carbon dating formula periodic table over here.

So carbon by definition has six protons, but the typical isotope, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon So carbon is the most common. So most of the darbon in your body is carbon But carbln interesting is that Radio carbon dating formula small fraction of carbon forms, and then this carbon can then also combine with oxygen to form carbon dioxide.

And then that carbon dioxide gets absorbed into the rest of the atmosphere, into our oceans. It can be fixed by plants. When people talk about carbon fixation, they're really talking about using mainly light energy from the sun to take gaseous carbon and turn it into actual kind of organic tissue.

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And so this carbon, it's constantly being formed. It makes its way into oceans-- it's already in the air, but it completely mixes through the whole atmosphere-- and the air. And then it makes its way into plants. And plants are really just made out of that fixed carbon, that carbon that was taken in gaseous form and Radio carbon dating formula into, I guess you could say, into kind of a solid form, formyla it Radio carbon dating formula a living form.

Radio carbon dating formula

That's what wood pretty much is. It gets put into plants, and then it gets put into the things that eat the plants. So that could be us. Now why is this even interesting?

I've just explained a mechanism where some of our body, even though carbon is the most common isotope, some of our body, while we're living, gets made up of this carbon thing. Well, the interesting thing is the only time you can take in this carbon is while you're alive, while you're eating new things. Because as soon as you die and you get buried under the Radio carbon dating formula, there's no way Radio carbon dating formula the carbon to become part of your tissue anymore because you're not eating anything with new carbon And what's interesting here is once you die, you're not going to get any new carbon And that carbon that you did have at you're death is going to decay via beta decay-- and we learned about this-- back into nitrogen So kind of this process reverses.

So it'll decay Radio carbon dating formula into nitrogen, and in beta decay you emit an electron and an electron anti-neutrino. I won't go into the details of that. But essentially what you have happening here is you have one of the neutrons is turning into a proton and emitting this stuff in the process.

Now why is this interesting? So I just said Radio carbon dating formula you're living you have kind of straight-up carbon And carbon is constantly doing this decay thing. But what's interesting is as soon as you die and you're not ingesting anymore plants, or breathing from the atmosphere if you are a plant, or fixing from the atmosphere. And this even applies to plants. Once a plant dies, Wives looking nsa OH Dunkirk 45836 no longer taking in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and turning it into new tissue.

The carbon in that tissue gets frozen. And this carbon does this decay at a specific rate. And then you can use that rate to actually determine how long ago that thing must've died.

Determining the Age of a Fossil Using Carbon - YouTube

So the rate at which this happens, so the rate of carbon decay, is essentially half disappears, half gone, in roughly 5, years. And this is actually called a half life. And we talk about in other videos.