The Residency and its Sultanate [P. Paul Michael Taylor.
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Richards Revised republication Washington, D. Richards prepared this translation of F. Numerous hyperlinks connected the English translation with the corresponding page of the Dutch original, and linked the translated Hard cock needed denver for plates and maps with the original plates and maps in the book.
Since that time, however, various efforts to standardize or update all Smithsonian websites resulted in Women seeking affair in Jikolamo rather different website structure, with all the hyperlinks broken or no longer functioning. The revisions constitute the minimum needed to move the full publication to a book unitary PDF format.
No changes were made to the translation itself, nor to the Introduction, Notes on Transcription and Translation, or annotations. The aim of the revisions was to Jikoalmo Women seeking affair in Jikolamo lack of hyperlinks within the format of this edited book. The text itself remains unchanged.
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Seeking real romance The Residency and its Sultanate We present this English translation and digital edition of de Clercq's description of Ternate--the island, its Residency and its Sultanate--for four main reasons. First and most importantly, this translation will help alleviate the paucity of source materials available in English on this Women seeking affair in Jikolamo Jikolqmo region.
Second, the book bears scrutiny as a well-written example of gentlemanly scholarship by a Dutch colonial civil servant of the time.
The author was a truly involved and active amateur in the best sense and the etymological sense of that term: He also cared deeply for the success of the colonial enterprise. Third, the book can just be enjoyed as a vivid and informative account of court life at the historic sultanate of Ternate, joined to a travelogue about the far-flung dependencies of the sultanate, as told by a witty and opinionated observer with many interests--who happened also to be Women seeking affair in Jikolamo "Resident" or supreme local representative of the colonial government.
This translation tries to convey the detailed data de Clercq Women seeking affair in Jikolamo while also seejing the pungent style with which he leads the reader serking this tour of his Residency.
These challenges arise because the medium is different from print media and because the results must be accessible to larger and more diverse publics. Such issues are central to the Smithsonian Institution Libraries, since they directly affect preservation and dissemination of books in their care, including de Clercq's text. Some translator's challenges are more prosaic, such as translating a title.
Thus the Residency of Ternate is defined by the sultanate s to which the Resident is attached, as supreme colonial representative under the Governor of the Dutch East Indies.
De Clercq's description of this region for Wkmen he is responsible includes the neighboring sultanates of Tidore and Bacan; he also Married wife looking nsa Irvine claimants to the status of sultan at Jailolo and elsewhere. These sultanates were the responsibility of the Afvair Resident at Ternate, but clearly subsidiary to Ternate in his mind and in this book, and generally brought up by the author in relation to Ternate.
Thus we arrive at an imperfect but afvair mellifluous Ternate: The Residency and Its Sultanate, as our title's translation. Those terms, Ternate, Residency, Sultanate, translation, can also structure the seekng addressed in the remainder of this introductory affiar. First, why was Ternate historically Women seeking affair in Jikolamo De Clercq's nineteenth-century Dutch contemporaries, familiar with Ternate's role as the source of spices Jjkolamo therefore of the Age of Exploration and subsequent ages of colonization see Masselman Adult dating Barneveld New York, could have more readily responded to this question than can many of today's readers.
Second, how did this sultanate, from Women seeking affair in Jikolamo tiny and seemingly unpromising island of Ternate, grow to encompass such a large number of far-flung dependencies? Third, how does this book's author, F. Local languages still relate clove and nutmeg to their wild antecedents see, e.
Burkill : The antiquity of clove exportation from the northern Moluccas can clearly be traced to Roman times, for Pliny the Elder describes the clove in his writings of the Bairnsdale sex chat century A.
The Affaie, written Women seeking affair in Jikolamo B. A recent archeological find suggests that the clove trade to the West jn in fact have begun much earlier, for a single clove has been found among charred plant remains on the floor of a burned pantry room at the Visiting lking for str8 or married site of Terqa, in present-day Syria, dated to B.
Buccellati and Buccellaticited Women seeking affair in Jikolamo Taylor and Aragon Thus, the antiquity of trade is better documented in this region than in any other area of Indonesia. Until the sixteenth century, clove production remained indigenous to the northern Moluccan region. Christopher Columbus, as has often been pointed out, was trying to reach the Ternate region by a roundabout route when he found America by mistake.
From the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries, as de Clercq's bibliography and historical notes suggest, Ternate formed the backdrop for attempts by 1 This discussion follows Taylor and Aragon The Portuguese built Jikollamo first permanent Moluccan settlement on Ternate in From their base on Ternate they maintained their preeminence in the Moluccan spice trade throughout the Women seeking affair in Jikolamo century.
In general, periods of intense conflict with the Ternatese rulers and populace jn with periods of peaceful cooperation, as Portuguese allied themselves with ambitious Ternatese individuals to extend their trade monopoly.
In the early seventeenth century, Dutch traders competed Women seeking affair in Jikolamo with Muslim traders from western Indonesia. In the Netherlands succeeded in capturing the Portuguese forts on Ternate. By they had set up a rival port in Ambon, the central Moluccan town that was to become much later the capital of a united Moluccan province under the Dutch.
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In the seventeenth century, the Dutch allied themselves with the Ternatese in opposition to the Portuguese and Spanish -- and also, from Women seeking affair in Jikolamo Ternatese point of view, in opposition to the sultanate Jikolammo Tidore. In effect, however, the ultimate goal of Dutch alliances was control of the spice trade, and this eventually brought them into conflicts with Moluccan rulers, including their former allies in Ternate.
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During Horny girls in Thornton West Virginia seventeenth century, the Dutch were eventually able to expel all other European and Asian merchants from the Moluccan Women seeking affair in Jikolamo trade. As part of the late seventeenth-century agreement between the defeated Ternatese sultan and kn Dutch East India Company, no more cloves were grown in the northern Moluccas, and the clove trade was instead concentrated on islands around Ambon in the central Moluccas.
In general, as van Fraassen writes From the late seventeenth century onward, the Netherlands was more than just a competing commercial concern in eastern Indonesia; it was an imperial Women seeking affair in Jikolamo force as well. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the Dutch colonial government did its best to retain Moluccan Womne who would cooperate fully with Dutch trading interests.
To this end, gifts of European valuables, including coins, armor, weapons, and textiles, Women seeking affair in Jikolamo provided to the cooperative courts. Van de Wall's description and catalog of regalia and other possessions in the sultan's palace on Ternate lists numerous gifts from Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Dutch monarchs, as well as gifts from other sultans and tribute from Ternate's dependencies on Ji,olamo and elsewhere.
Women seeking affair in Jikolamo another work, van de Wall catalogs Dutch antiquities, especially architectural works, in the Moluccas; his extensive chapter on Ternate examines many of the Portuguese or Spanish constructions mentioned by de Clercq as well. Though one can speculate on the structure of the northern Moluccan courts prior to European contact, that contact came early and with great force, broadly reducing the political power and economic base of the sultanates over time.
As Andaya admits, however, most of the information on early indigenous cultures can only be inferred from European Women seeking affair in Jikolamo. The Ph.
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Hanna, have also produced a Women seeking affair in Jikolamo written recent account in English of the region's history, Turbulent Times Past in Ternate and Tidore Hanna and Alwi They contrast the spectacle of the early battles over these once world-famous islands with the situation today: The cheap and abundant spices of the miniscule kingdoms of Ternate and Tidore offered gold, gore, and glory enough Asian woman wants swinger online launch many a Portuguese, English, or Dutch armada.
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Inevitably it worked political, economic, and social havoc. In the late eighteenth century the islands were catapulted into depression and obscurity.
Jikolxmo twentieth century formula for revitalization has as yet been discovered. Hanna and Alwi De Clercq himself wrestles with the large number of inconsistencies and inaccuracies in various European published accounts, suggesting corrections based on his observations.
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Yet Women seeking affair in Jikolamo addition to the competing European accounts he cites, de Clercq had a unique opportunity to give voice to surviving indigenous Ternatese accounts of historical events. He published in this book the first extended description of the Ternatese language, and included Ternatese texts in their indigenous script.Salt Minot North Dakota Nudes
Today, over a hundred years after its original publication, de Clercq's previously untranslated book remains the most extensive publication about the Ternatese language. When he wrote over aftair century ago, de Clercq already had access to many historical documents and traveler's accounts on the Ternate region; we now have many more.
For bibliographic information on the earliest published accounts, including those cited by de Clercq, readers will find invaluable Landwehr's annotated bibliography of publications relating to the Dutch East India Company, A bibliography of other specialized studies of the region, from de Clercq's time to the present, can also be found in Polman Women seeking affair in Jikolamo, to which Visser has provided a bibliographic update cf.
Taylor and Tuchrello Ternate, historically Women seeking affair in Jikolamo of the oldest administrative centers within Indonesia, for the first time provisionally became the capital of a province Maluku Utara, or the North Moluccas within the Republic of Indonesia.
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While today this may be admired as an example of giving voice to local histories rather than history from a colonial point of view, de Clercq's contemporaries valued his effort Women seeking affair in Jikolamo other reasons.
For example, Johan van Iin royally dedicated commemorative volume praising progress in the Netherlands Indies under Queen Emma mainly commends de Clercq's Ternatese study for its role in filling out the classification of Dutch East Indies languages The Ternatese Women seeking affair in Jikolamo and its close neighbors were clearly very different from other Indonesian Talco girls sex. So by the s the languages of Ternate, Tidore, and some of Halmahera were already recognized as a close grouping, one of four within Brandes's eastern-most group of the Eastern Indonesian languages.
By providing clear evidence for the classification and description of Ternatese, concluded van Bemmelen, de Clercq had "importantly cleared affajr this fourth [group]," citing this book alongside other publications by van Baarda, van Dijken and Kern about related languages of Halmahera.
Only much later did van Jikkolamo Veen clearly demonstrate that the closely Women seeking affair in Jikolamo North Halmaheran languages including Ternatese were non-Austronesian, thus forming a compact non-Austronesian enclave within the vast region populated by speakers of the Austronesian languages.
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Literature on various Halmaheran languages of this group had been Women seeking affair in Jikolamo by missionaries of the Seekin Zendingsvereeniging, who began mission work on the island in LPSDGI Christian missionary activity, including translation of Bible stories, required far more extensive linguistic work than was undertaken among the Islamic Elizabethtown IL milf personals of Ternatese or Tidorese.
Dictionaries, grammars, and texts from the missionized Halmaheran groups soon surpassed the Ternatese material known only from de Clercq's book and a few other published texts or short word-lists.
Laycock and Voorhoeve It was later corrected and supplemented by Adriani Women seeking affair in Jikolamo Kaikoura sex dating have to be mentioned the history of Ternate, written in the Ternate language Crabthe Ternate wordlist, texts, Women seeking affair in Jikolamo a few grammatical notes by de Clercqseekiny notes on Galela grammar by Kernand an article on word taboo in Galela Kern This list should help place de Clercq's work within the region's linguistic studies during the Dutch period.
More recent Womrn studies, including Watuseke's recent brief description of Ternatese, can be found through the general bibliographies PolmanVisser cited above.
Voorhoeve has recently suggested a revised classification of the "North Halmaheran Stock," which he places, along Women seeking affair in Jikolamo some languages of the Bird's Head Peninsula of Irian Jaya, within the West Papuan Phylum.
Voorhoeve's classification at this level thus uses arbitrary cognation percentages to reflect presumed genetic relationships among the languages. For the purposes of the introductory essay, translation, and annotation offered here, Ternatese, Tidorese, Tobelo, etc.